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I. EARLY CHINESE VOYAGES OF DISCOVERYBetween 1421 and 1423 the Chinese mounted the fleet that is largest the world had ever seen which reached the far corners of the earth. The fleet discovered and charted the New World years that are seventy Christopher Columbus and circumnavigated the planet a hundred years before Magellan. The revelation of the achievements has challenged our notions of voyages of discovery and ensures that our understanding of history needs to be revised.

II. THE PIZZIGANO CHART

In the first 1990’s Gavin Menzies, an old navy that is british, discovered an unusual chart that was drafted in 1424 by a Venetian cartographer named Zuane Pizzigano. The chart showed a group of four islands in the Caribbean – Satanazes, Antilia, Saya and Ymana that did not appear in other map and marked places where no European had visited before such as Patagonia, the Andes, Antarctica and the coast that is east of.

Menzies determined why these explorers were Chinese because only that they had the relevant skills in astro-navigation, horticulture along with a giant fleet big enough to mount such an voyage that is epic. (1)

III. DESTRUCTION OF DOCUMENTARY*) that is EVIDENCE the fleet returned home in October 1423, emperor Zhu Di had fallen through the throne and a fantastic storm had destroyed his palace. It was regarded as a omen that is bad as a result when his son succeeded to the throne he rejected the outside world and destroyed the majority of China’s documents recording China’s previous expansionist policies.

IV. ZHENG HE – THE EUNUCH

In 1402 emperor Zhu Di succeeded to the throne by overthrowing Zhu Yunwen and he sought to prove the legitimacy of his regime in the eyes of the Gods by conceiving a grand plan and for its’ implementation he turned to his bodyguard, admiral Zheng He.

Zheng because he was not his father’s designated heir He was a eunuch. Eunuchs were Mongol boys whom the Chinese castrated by severing their penises and testicles, after defeating the Mongols into the century that is fourteenth. Then they were conscripted into the army or used as personal servants to the emperor.

The grand plan involved forming an armada to establish an empire, building a capital that is new in Beijing and extending the truly amazing Wall of China.

V. THE GRAND PLAN

A. ‘Tribute System’

Zheng he had been commandeered to put together a armada that is large sail and chart the oceans of the world bringing foreign rulers and the entire world into China’s ‘tribute system’. (2)

Under that system rulers paid tribute to China in return for trading privileges and protection against enemies. China always gave its’ trading partners a greater value of goods – silks and porcelain at discounted prices, often funded by soft loans – than was received from them. Thus they were in perpetual debt to China.

B. Beijing – The New Imperial City

In 1404 in furtherance of a plan to build a capital that is new four . 5 million artisans and laborers were employed to the office on construction and another million to shield them.

Beijing would be to function as capital that is intellectual of world with libraries and storage for four thousand encyclopedias, the opinions of 120 philosophers and sages of the Song dynasty together with commentaries of thinkers from the 11th and 13th centuries.

This would be unlike anything else in the rest of the world where printing was unknown and culture and knowledge that is scientific far behind.

C. The truly amazing Wall of China

This have been built between 221 and 206 BC to safeguard the northern frontiers from attack while the wall that is new to run 6,400 kilometers west from the Pacific to the Heavenly Mountains in central Asia.

VI. THE ARMADA

The Chinese had the most navy that is powerful the entire world. Their treasure ships were monsters that are ocean-going of teak, the rudders stood 36 feet high and they could carry more than 2000 tons of cargo. The galleys were protected by archers and were armed with gunpowder weapons, cannons, mortars arrows that are flaming exploding shells.

The armada was organized like a convoy that is modern the flagships at the center surrounded by junks, 90 feet long and 30 feet wide and an outer ring of warships.

The ships could remain at sea for over three months and cover 4500 miles because accompanying them were water tankers and grain ships with chickens, dogs, pigs and other animals for food and horses for the cavalry.

Trading Ships from other nations would join in and the altogether there were more than 800 ships and crews large enough to fill a populous city.

Unlike European voyages that have been directed at finding treasure voyages that are chinese*)were scientific expeditions and included various professionals like interpreters, navigators, engineers and physicians to search for healing plants.

VII. MENZIES’ METHODOLOGY
In order to support his thesis that Zheng He had discovered the New World Gavin Menzies had to follow the route the ships that are chinese taken but in addition to get traces of the presence in places along those routes.

Some thirty-four lines of evidence had survived the destruction of this records in which he has also been helped by his experience as a navigator into the navy and also by Chinese historian, Ma Huan, who documented the part that is first of voyage in his diaries. (3)

VIII. THE GREAT VOYAGE

A. Chinese Astronomy

The armada set sail on March 8, 1421 and the shape that is hull of ships meant which they needed to sail prior to the wind.

In Chinese astronomy latitude was determined not because of the distance north of this equator but because of the distance through the North Pole that has been based on the altitude of Polaris, a star that is bright the North Pole (i.e. its’ height above the horizon).

By sailing due south and keeping Polaris astern that is dead the fleet could gauge the star’s altitude using their sextants and thereafter every twenty-four hours to look for the change of latitude (for example. its distance south of this North Pole).

Polaris had not been visible into the southern hemisphere and so could not determine latitude south of this equator.

B. Da Conti and Fra Mauro

According to Ma Huan the armada sailed to the Indian Ocean where it had been divided in to four fleets – three beneath the command of Hong Bao, Zhou Man and Zhou Wen. Zheng He commanded the fourth which sailed to Asia that is south-east before home in November 1421.

The fleet then sailed to Calicut in India and then up the west coast of Africa to the Cape Verde islands.

In a report of his journey to the Papacy a trader that is venetian Niccolo da Conti (c. 1395 – 1469) described the existence of Chinese warships in Calicut during the right time of his visit. Also, a map of southern Africa dated 1459 and drawn by a cartographer that is venetian Mauro, included a drawing of Zheng he is junks.

Both men claimed that a junk that is chinese sailed round the Cape of Good Hope and into the south Atlantic and this was confirmed by a Chinese chart dat 1420 called the Kangnido map which accurately depicted the coasts of Africa and must have been drawn by someone who sailed round the Cape.

Furthermore the Chinese had a practice of leaving carved stones as monuments to their achievements when they stopped at places on their voyages. Examples of stones found were the Matadi Falls in the Congo, a standing that is free in Janela in Africa and another in Dondra Head in Sri Lanka.

After leaving the Cape Verde islands the fleet separated so admiral Zhou Wen went north because of the current through the Caribbean to united states while admirals Hong Bao and Zhou Man took the existing south that is due South America.

C. The Piri Reis Map

This map of South America drafted by an Ottoman admiral named Piri Reis in 1428 confirms that the fleet went to the Orinoco Delta and the Amazon. DNA of american peoples that are indian the Amazon, Brazil and Venezuela indicated that that they had diseases unique to China.

The winds then carried the fleet to Patagonia in south Argentina. A number of birds and animals have been taken up to and through the Americas. The Piri Reis map depicted a deer in Patagonia, a guanaco (variety of camel) and a mountain lion that are indigenous to south usa. A man that is native a dog-headed man or mylodon were found in the Chinese book called The Illustrated Record of Strange Countries 1430 which depicted animals found by the Chinese on their travels.

The Europeans also found when they arrived rice fields – a crop foreign to the Americas- in Mexico and Brazil, cotton unique to North America in the Cape Verde islands and coconuts from the South Pacific in Puerto Rico. Bananas, tobacco, sweet potatoes and maize from the Amazon were also exported to Asia. that is south-east

IX. THE VOYAGE OF HONG BAO

His mission would be to east chart the world of the Falkland Islands. The current pushed the fleet into a strait that is narrow is famously referred to as ‘The Strait of Magellan’ since it is a sea route involving the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Then the fleet sailed to Antarctica as far south once the South Pole. A sailor from Bologna named Ludovico de Varthema in 1506 claimed that two sailors that are chinese him that the Chinese had sailed by the Southern Cross to regions that were very cold and had sunlight for only four hours a day which they could only have known by sailing there themselves. In addition the Piri Reis map showed ice running south that is due of Strait of Magellan and will need to have been drawn by a person who sailed alongside it.

The fleet then got beneath the Canopus, a star that is giant above the South

Pole.
A. Canopus

Getting underneath Canopus and knowing the circumference of the fleet was enabled by the earth to calculate the career of this South Pole. The wu Pei Chi 1422.

The by cross- referencing Canopus to Polaris they could then use that star to obtain latitude anywhere in the southern hemisphere.

B.Australia – West Coast

Hong Bao’s fleet was carried by the current to the west coast of Australia via the island of Kerguelen as identified in the Dictionary of Ming Biography of Records and on the Chinese chart junk dispatched to chart the area got wrecked and in 1836 three hunters found the wreck of a ship built of mahogany which Europeans did not use to build ships and twenty years later was identified by an Australian Mrs. Manifold as the ship that is missing

The Aboriginal Yangery tribe which live close to the wreck-site have a color that is distinctive facial features and claim that ‘yellow men’ settled among them who must have been from the wreck.

X. THE VOYAGE OF ZHOU MAN

Zhou Man’s fleet got swept northward up the coast of Chile until they reached Peru. There they exchanged tributes with the Incas that is indigenous which present in a novel about Zheng he is voyages in 1597 called His-Yang-Chi-(Xi Yang Ji) all of these could possibly be present in northern Peru including llamas, cachalots (small whales) and Asiatic hens.

After leaving Peru, the fleet put into two parts. The squadron that is northern to the Carolinas, New Guinea and the Philippines.

Evidence of their presence in the Americas were observation platforms in the Carolinas, like those in China; Chinese hens in Peru and maize and tools used to grind it, indigenous to the Americas, were found in the Philippines.

The southern squadron was carried by the current to the coast that is east of.

A. Australia – East Coast
In the zoo that is imperial Beijing there is the figure of a Kangaroo which is unique to Australia and in the 1840’s a ruined fortress was found in New South Wales formed with large stones and mortar with a large tree growing under the stones. Such fortifications were not built by the Aborigines and given the age of the tree must have been built before the British arrived.

Also found were rock carvings depicting a junk that is chinese people in long robes

Indicating the existence of Chinese.

A shipwreck was found near Byron Bay in New South Wales as well as in 1965 sand-miners found a rudder that is huge 40 feet high which must have been Chinese since only they built ships with such large rudders.

The similarities of another wreckage near Wollongong near Sydney and two more in Perth proves the presence of the Chinese in east Australia in the century that is 15th

New Zealand – the present pushed the fleet towards the south Island of brand new Zealand where in actuality the wreck of a classic ship that is wooden found on the southern tip and in 1831 Sydney seamen saw mylodons and sea otters which are not indigenous to New Zealand and must have escaped the wreck.

On the North Island a huge carved stone was found with concentric circles similar to the ones the Chinese left behind in Dondra Head, Janela and by the Matadi Falls in the Congo Delta.

A celebrated bell similar to Zheng He’s bell cast after the voyage that is sixth found near a ship wreck on Ruapuke beach, an oriental figurine was found near Auckland while the Maoris near Ruapuke had a legend that ‘Patupaiarche’ or pale-skinned Chinese settlers had married Maori women proving the Chinese had reached New Zealand.

Brisbane, Australia – The fleet made a landfall that is second Australia, north of Brisbane. There their engineers went ashore on horses and gathered gold and other minerals that are precious built pyramids in Gympie obviously to mark the positioning of this precious riches.

As recent as October 5, 2002 historian Brett Green unearthed the wreck of a sizable ship that is chinese Queensland proving that Captain Cook did not discover Australia.

After Australia they visited the Spice Islands and the Philippines where they exchanged silks and porcelain for spices, large enough to fill the warehouse that is imperial Beijing.

B.The First Colony into the Americas

The manner when the islands were drawn in the Waldseemuller map that has been the very first map around the globe published in 1507 and named after German cartographer, indicated that Zhou Man’s fleet after leaving the Philippines put up colonies over the Pacific coast from California to Ecuador.
Professor Judith A. Carney of this University of California argues it was the Chinese who taught the farmer that is american to farm and by the 1870’s seventy five percent of farm laborers in California were of Chinese origin. (4)

Also in 1874 Stephen Powers, an official inspector of the Government of

California found linguistic evidence of a colony that is chinese the Russian River in California, seventy miles north of this wreck of a Chinese junk (the Sacramento junk) which have been built in 1410 and was identified because of the carbon-date of this wood.

Powers described Chinese settlers as having intermarried with local Indians and their descendants were paler than people in the coast while the older generation had beards although the women were as happy with their black hair once the that is chinese

Rather than skins, women wore a garment that is single the design of a wool sack, sleeveless and gathered during the neck. The descendants desired like the Chinese to be buried in the ancestral soil of their tribe; they were sedentary; four fifths of their diet was vegetarian and they had a vast knowledge of botanical names.

Pottery unlike Indian tribes, after death was formed in classic shapes that are chinese the Indians beat out a hollow of a rock leaving the surface rough. The ancient tribes used long knives however their descendants used obsidian or jasper (a form of crystal); the ancestors fashioned tobacco pipes from serpentine while their descendants made simple wooden ones and used a method that is chinese of wildfowl by using decoy ducks.(5)

Powers’ arguments are also supported by DNA evidence which corroborates the Asian origin of Native American populations and suggests gene that is recent from Asia. (6)

On the eastern side of san francisco bay area Bay, seventy miles south of this Sacramento junk is a tiny village that is stone-built low walls which in 1904 Dr. John Fryer, a professor of Oriental Languages at University College, Berkeley, California stated was the work of the Chinese who wall themselves in as they do in China.

Lastly, fifty stone carvings of ships and forty horses were found alongside the Mississippi river suggesting that the horses were brought there by ship.

C. Colonies in Central America

After leaving the coast of California the fleet made landfall in Colima, Mexico.

Here They encountered the Mayan civilization nearly as fine and old as their very own. As soon as the conquistadores that are spanish in Mexico in the 1520’s they found Asiatic chickens; the names of birds Kek or Ki were similar to those of the Chinese and the Mexicans like the Chinese used chickens for ceremonial purposes.

Sweet potatoes, tomatoes and papayas which are indigenous to Central America were found in Easter Island in Oceania and potatoes that are sweet also present in Hawaii. The Maya had built stone cities like Palenque in Chiapas built in c. AD 325- 925 that has been filled up with treasures which is why the Chinese exchanged silks and ceramics.

Metals were mined into the way that is same in China and mirrors were important in both cultures.

But the strongest signs of Chinese influence was in Uruapan where the process of preparing lacquer which is obtained from a tree in China (or Ch’I-Ch’l in Chinese) are identical in Mexico and China. There are also similar techniques to obtain other dyes such as madder red, indigo blue, scarlet and purple that is shellfish well as Vermilion dyes obtained from insects scraped off oak trees, lac (lactic acid) from Asia and royal (tyrian) purple from marine snails.

Linguistic proof of Chinese visits to south usa are a ship that is sailing chamban in Colombia, sampan in China; a raft, balsa in South America and palso in China and a log raft, jangada in Brazil and ziangada in Tamil. Villagers in a mountain village in Peru speak Chinese.

DNA evidence shows that the peoples in Mexico, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Peru share DNA that is chinese. So deep may be the influence that is chinese continent that it could be called ‘Chinese America’.

XI. THE VOYAGE OF ZHOU WEN

A. The Caribbean

Zhou Wen sailed north to the Cape Verde Islands where the currents converged to take them towards the Dominica Passage.
The fleet sailed northwards to Guadeloupe, an island reportedly inhabited by Carib cannibals who among other things used skulls that are human drinking vessels along with other parts of the body as food. This island was Satanazes-Satan Island and as regards the other islands shown for the first time on the Pizzigano chart Saya was identified as Les Saintes, Antilia matched Puerto Rico and Ymana placed directly above the volcanoes of La Souffriere, La Citerne and L’Echelle.

The on a modern map of the area wind then drove the fleet due north along the coast of Cuba towards Grand Bahama in The Bahamas.

B.Bimini Road

In 1968 an rock that is underwater was found from the coast of North Bimini into the Bahamas. It lies in the ocean floor, about one thousand yards through the shore and comprised a huge selection of flat rocks, eight to ten feet square arranged in regular patterns, called Bimini Road. It absolutely was man-made with two parallel lines of stones south-west that is running the ocean. The section that is western at an angle of 160 degrees to your beach and curves round to perform right to the shore.
Gavin Menzies thinks Bimini Road is a submerged dock that is dry by the Chinese and since sea levels were about six feet lower six centuries ago, this dock could have been on the shore of Bimini.

As the fleet sailed towards Bimini many ships ran aground and were tied alongside seaworthy ones to keep them afloat. The stern would have had to be turned around to face the beach before being hauled to shore.

The Chinese had engineers aboard and over six centuries’ experience of laying stonework under water and the stones used are found in Yangtze in China and could have been sized and cut in Nanjing where in actuality the treasure ships were built.

Four junks had sunk off North Bimini and five abandoned while the rest repaired. A few of the surviving sailors needed to be left out so when food supplies ran out they might have experienced to setup settlements in Cuba and over the coast that is east of. (7)

This explanation is consistent with reports from successive explorers on seeing men in ‘white tunics which reached to their knees’ along the route the Chinese had followed.

C. Settlement in North America

There is an abundance of evidence of the presence of the Chinese on the North American mainland.

The junks were carried by the Gulf Stream to Cape Hatteras in North Carolina where they divided into two squadrons. One squadron went to the Cape Verde Islands via the Azores and the other went north circumnavigated Greenland and back down its’ east coast.

In 1524 explorer that is venetian de Verrazzano stopped into the Narragansett Bay near Rhode Island and described the area people as wearing long dresses and jewellery with long black hair which fits the description of Chinese concubines. He also described seeing during the entrance to your bay a rock that is natural appears to be the rock on which stands the Round Tower in the park in Newport, Rhode Island. (8) The tower must have been to mark a settlement that is chinese been a lighthouse to mark the bay.

Six separate accounts of this first Europeans to achieve New England described civilized white or bronze-skinned women staying in Newport who wore eastern clothes and combed their hair in buns like Chinese women.

Menzies discovered twelve curious stones erected because of the Chinese in a are that is small eastern Massachusetts similar to the ones the Chinese had left behind in Africa and Asia.

The results of recent tests on the Moskoke people in south-east United States show Chinese DNA.

New England could now be renamed ‘New China’.
In the Azores on the island called The Raven (Corvo) there was a statue that is chinese of man on a horse, his head is uncovered in which he is bald, his left-hand rests upon his horse along with his right-hand points to the west. It was without doubt a replica of Zhu Di. The statue is Chinese considering that the Azores appears in the Kangnido that is chinese chart was produced before the Portuguese discovered the islands.

C. Expedition to the North Pole

The Chinese got as far as Greenland and in 1448 Pope Nicholas V wrote to the bishops of Skalholt and Holar in Iceland about ‘barbarians’ (a term that refers to people from the east) attacking the inhabitants of Greenland.

The existence of stone villages was proof of Chinese colonies and on the Bache Peninsula of Ellesmere Island was a colony of about twenty-five houses and beacons as well as evidence of Chinese mining of copper near Devon Island.

Further Evidence is the Vinland map (c.1424) depicting the coast of Greenland with precise DNA and accuracy analysis proving that the Natives of Hvalsey, a

settlement in Greenland possess Chinese DNA.

XII. THE VOYAGE OF YANG*)Yang that is QING( Qing left Beijing a month before the rest of the armada and spent his whole voyage in the Indian Ocean where his big achievement was learning to determine longitude.

The key to longitude that is finding to see exactly the same event like a lunar eclipse at different locations around the world and fixing the precise time the big event were held, then calculating the distinctions in longitude. The Chinese had a large fleet that is enough deploy at different locations to take readings. If the longitude of say Malacca is determined the fleet could use other observation posts around the Indian Ocean to take readings on the night that is same. The earth is between the sun and the moon and the earth’s shadow obscures the moon in a lunar eclipse. The Chinese could forecast a eclipse that is lunar occurs about every half a year.

Because with this achievement, the foundation of world maps in addition to latitude and longitude could possibly be determined combined with the discovery of this “” new world “”.

XIII. SUMMARY

The evidence proves conclusively that the glory for discovering the brand new World is going to Chinese admirals Zheng He, Hong Bao, Zhou Man and Zhou Wen and their fleets 1421 – 1423 and never to your Europeans.

The evidence includes physical entities like shipwrecks of Chinese junks in the usa, Australia and India; carved stones of Africa while the remains of Chinese people in south usa; DNA, artifacts, scientific and evidence that is circumstantial the fifteenth century including linguistic, ceremonial and spiritual.

Archaeological Teams all over the global world are evacuating sites considered to contain relics of Chinese shipwrecks.

The information is enshrined in over one thousand books providing proof of pre-Columbian Chinese journeys to your Americas and it is summarized in a bibliography that is two-volume. (9)

The Chinese provided Europeans with maps, navigational tools and an calendar that is astronomical anything they produced by themselves. Their types of calculating longitude and latitude were given to the Europeans so that Columbus, Magellan and other explorers used them to reach the New World.

The Chinese colonized America and transplanted crops that are economic have since fed and clothed the entire world.

Notes:

(1) 1421 the China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies p. 34 to 35.

(2) Emperor Zhu Di’s instructions to Zheng He, paraphrased from the two stone steles of 1431.

(3 year) The survey that is overall of Ocean Shores, published after Zheng he is voyage in 1433

(4) Carey McWilliams, Factories on the go, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2000. P.68-80).

(5) Stephen Powers ‘Aborigines of California: An Indo-Chinese Study’ in Atlantic, Vol.33, 1874 and Contributions to united states Ethnology, Vol.3, Department of Interior, Washington DC 1877).
(6) Human Biology (vol. 70) entitled ‘Polymorphic Alu Insertions while the Asian
Origin of Native American Populations’ by Professor Novick.

(7) 1421 the China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies p.310-316.

(8 year) Account of Verazzano’s voyage in his letter 8July 1524 to Francis quoted in D.B.Quinn (ed.) North American Discovery, Harper & Row 1971.

(9) J.L. Sorenson and M.H. Raish, pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas across the Oceans; An Annotated bibliography, Provo Research Press 1990).(*)Acknowledgement I am greatly indebted to Gavin Menzies and his book ‘1421 – the China discovered America’ – for the information contained in this article.(*)Victor year A. Dixon(*)Author and Social Scientist(*)Revised October 23, 2020(*)kingsman secret service subtitles(*) (*)California sexual abuse attorneys(*) The way the Discovery of a Map Revised the past history around the globe Discover 22

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